The physical anthropological research, co-directed by Dominque Castex (CNRS) and Philippe Blanchard (Inrap) has concentrated on a small sector in the centre of the catacomb. This section was unexplored until the summer of 2003, when the Pontifical Commission of Sacred Archaeology, after a leak in a pipe, decided to carry out an excavation under the supervision of Raffaella Giuliani, Inspector of the Catacombs of Rome. Two galleries at right angles, one containing an as yet unsuspected religious centre, have come to light.
A few remains of wall paintings, dating stylistically from the 6th and 7th centuries AD, could indicate a cult of relics which, according to written sources of the Early Middle Ages, could be that of a group of Martyrs. In fact, the presence of numerous figures in the details of one painting might indicate the cults of the "Thirty Roman Martyrs" or, more probably, of the "Forty martyred soldiers of Sebaste", now Sivas (Turkey).
The archaeo-anthropological study, carried out in a series of rooms adjoining the gallery, where acts of worship were practised, has revealed a quite unusual organisation of space, containing rooms of different sizes and shapes at very different levels. This layout is in no way similar to the traditional arrangement of the catacomb, which consists of galleries bordered with loculi (niches to place the bodies), of arcosolia (elaborate niches crowned with an arch) or of cubicula (rooms grouping individual tombs for families or corporations).